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5G technology brings challenges to antenna design

  • Categories:News Center
  • Time of issue:2021-01-27 14:17
  • Views:

(Summary description)5G technology will provide 1,000 times data transmission compared to 4G networks. Among them, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has announced the measurement requirements for the required transmission rate, delay and reliability of 5G networks, and is actively improving energy efficiency , But there is no measurable goal for this.

5G technology brings challenges to antenna design

(Summary description)5G technology will provide 1,000 times data transmission compared to 4G networks. Among them, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has announced the measurement requirements for the required transmission rate, delay and reliability of 5G networks, and is actively improving energy efficiency , But there is no measurable goal for this.

  • Categories:News Center
  • Author:shutterstock
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2021-01-27 14:17
  • Views:
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5G technology will provide 1,000 times data transmission compared to 4G networks. Among them, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has announced the measurement requirements for the required transmission rate, delay and reliability of 5G networks, and is actively improving energy efficiency , But there is no measurable goal for this.


Since the 5G system has a larger throughput than the 4G (LTE) system, it needs to use multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology as the basis. Multiple transmitting antennas and receiving antennas are used at the transmitting end and the receiving end, so that the signal can pass through the transmitting end and the receiving end. Multi-antenna transmission and reception means to increase the data transmission antenna port, thereby improving communication quality and gaining greater channel freedom (in addition to the frequency domain and time domain, increasing the spatial freedom and increasing the system channel capacity), the potential space in the network is restored. Maximize the benefits of Spatial Multiplexing to improve spectrum efficiency, transmission reliability and energy efficiency.

5G technology features high-frequency communication, Massive MIMO, carrier aggregation, etc. The RF part requires hardware support. The development of 5G antennas has changed from passive to active, and integrated with radio frequency units. From the original antenna + radio frequency The remote radio unit (Remote Radio Unit, RRU) of the unit becomes an Active Antenna Unit (AAU). Due to the overall improvement, this will bring new hardware design challenges to mobile terminals.

Base station antennas evolve towards miniaturization and integration
Base station antennas continue to evolve, from the past omnidirectional antennas, directional single-polarized antennas, directional dual-polarized antennas, ESC single-polarized antennas, ESC dual-polarized antennas, dual-frequency ESCs dual-polarized to the current multi-frequency dual Polarized antennas. As the number of mobile communication users continues to increase and the existing spectrum resources are increasingly scarce, the base station antenna is further required to achieve multi-frequency integration. With the development of 5G technology, the base station antenna will move towards miniaturization and integration (integration). Antennas and filters).

In 2017, in the base station antenna market, the world's top five antenna manufacturers accounted for 80% of the market share, of which Huawei reached 30.5%, Kathrein reached 21.5%, Commscope reached 15.5%, Amphenol reached 7.5%, and RFS reached 5%.

▲ The estimated market share of global base station antennas from 2017 to 2018. (Source: Top Industry Research Institute, 2018.10)

Massive MIMO is a key technology for 5G to improve system capacity and spectrum utilization
With the development of large-scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO), this technology involves the use of more antenna arrays per base station, so that each base station has more hardware components. Compared with 4G, 5G will increase the total energy consumption of 5G base stations, but as massive MIMO technology matures, its energy efficiency may also improve over time; in other words, the device can provide services to more users at the same time and frequency This capability is called spatial multiplexing.

In addition, the complexity of 5G antennas has greatly increased. At present, 4G networks generally use 2~8 channel antennas (FDD [Frequency Division Duplex] format is mostly 2/4 channels, and TDD [Time Division Duplex] format is mostly 8 channels), generally 10~40 antenna elements; compared with 4G technology, 5G base station antenna requirements will greatly increase. With the full adoption of Massive MIMO, the number of antenna elements will reach 64, 128, or even 256. Through different dimensions (time domain) , Air, frequency, polarization, etc.) to improve spectrum and energy utilization efficiency.

The basic components of 5G networks include the rise of massive MIMO antennas and the increase in the number of small cells. According to estimates by the Small Cell Forum, 5G Small Cells will surpass 4G Small Cells in 2024. The total installation of 5G and Multi-Mode (Multi-Mode) Small Cells is expected to reach 13.1 million in 2025, accounting for one-third of the total number of Small Cells. One.

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