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GPS antenna structure, principle, test

  • Categories:News Center
  • Time of issue:2021-01-25 14:31
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(Summary description)[Active ceramic antenna composition] GPS antenna is composed of two parts: receiving antenna and preamplifier. The function of the GPS receiving antenna is to convert the electromagnetic wave energy of the radio signal from the satellite into a current that can be picked up by the receiver electronics. Most of the built-in GPS antennas are right-handed polarized ceramic media, and their components are: ceramic antennas, low-noise signal modules, cables, and connectors.

GPS antenna structure, principle, test

(Summary description)[Active ceramic antenna composition] GPS antenna is composed of two parts: receiving antenna and preamplifier. The function of the GPS receiving antenna is to convert the electromagnetic wave energy of the radio signal from the satellite into a current that can be picked up by the receiver electronics. Most of the built-in GPS antennas are right-handed polarized ceramic media, and their components are: ceramic antennas, low-noise signal modules, cables, and connectors.

  • Categories:News Center
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  • Time of issue:2021-01-25 14:31
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Information

[Active ceramic antenna composition] GPS antenna is composed of two parts: receiving antenna and preamplifier. The function of the GPS receiving antenna is to convert the electromagnetic wave energy of the radio signal from the satellite into a current that can be picked up by the receiver electronics. Most of the built-in GPS antennas are right-handed polarized ceramic media, and their components are: ceramic antennas, low-noise signal modules, cables, and connectors.
  
Active ceramic antenna
1) Ceramic antenna is also called passive antenna, which is the core technology of GPS antenna. The signal receiving ability of a GPS antenna depends mostly on the composition of its ceramic parts.

2) The low-noise signal module is also called LNA, which amplifies and filters the signal. The selection of its components is also very important, otherwise it will increase the reflection loss of the GPS signal and cause excessive noise.

3) The selection of cables should also be based on reducing reflections to ensure impedance matching.

4) For connectors, please refer to the connection above.
  
[GPS antenna working principle]
1) Ceramic sheet: The quality of the ceramic powder and the sintering process directly affect its performance. The ceramic sheets currently used in the market are mainly 25×25, 18×18, 15×15, 12×12. The larger the area of ​​the ceramic sheet, the larger the dielectric constant, the higher the resonance frequency, and the better the receiving effect. The ceramic sheets are mostly square in design to ensure that the resonance in the XY direction is basically the same, so as to achieve the effect of uniform star collection.

2) Silver layer: The silver layer on the surface of the ceramic antenna can affect the antenna resonance frequency. The ideal GPS ceramic chip frequency point accurately falls on 1575.42MHz, but the antenna frequency point is very susceptible to the surrounding environment, especially when assembled in the whole machine, the silver surface coating shape must be adjusted to adjust the frequency point to stay at 1575.42MHz .

3) Feed point: The ceramic antenna collects the resonance signal through the feed point and sends it to the back end. Due to antenna impedance matching, the feed point is generally not in the center of the antenna, but slightly adjusted in the XY direction. This impedance matching method is simple and does not increase the cost. Moving only in the direction of a single axis is called a single-biased antenna, and moving in both axes is called a double-biased antenna.

4) Amplifier: The shape and area of ​​the PCB carrying the ceramic antenna. Due to the ground-bounce characteristics of GPS receiving signals, when the background is a 7cm×7cm uninterrupted ground, the antenna's effectiveness can be maximized. Although restricted by factors such as appearance and structure, try to keep a considerable area and uniform shape. The choice of amplifier gain must match the back-end LNA gain. Sirf's GSC3F requires that the total gain before signal input should not exceed 29dB, otherwise the signal will be oversaturated and self-excited.

GPS antennas can receive signals better in outdoor open areas. In the car, the metal shell and glass explosion-proof film, especially the car film containing metal powder, and the car audio, etc. will interfere or even hinder the built-in GPS antenna to receive signals. It is blocked by reinforced concrete indoors and cannot even receive GPS signals.

[GPS antenna test] The
test results of three active ceramic antennas of 25* 25* 8mm, 20* 4* 6mm, and 16* 6* 6mm were compared, and the signal strength of the search star decreased in turn.

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